Singapore
Asia's cosmopolitan city
Singapore geography

Singapore geography

"The island at mainland Asia's southernmost tip"

  

 

 

Located at the southernmost tip of the Malay Peninsula, approximately 100 kilometers north of the equator, Singapore is actually mainland Asia's southernmost point (excluding the islands of Indonesia that are, obviously, not considered as part of Continental Asia).

 

The country consists of 63 islands, of which the biggest is Singapore Island.  Other significant islands include: Pulau Ubin, Jurong, Sentosa and St. John.

 

Singapore occupied an area of only 581 km² in the 1960s, but thanks to intensive land reclamation projects, it grew to 700 km² today and is planned to grow in another 100 km² by 2030.

 

An ever-growing island...

Did you know ? Singapore's land area has grown in more than 20% since reclamation projects started, back in the 19th century.

 

Generally speaking, Singapore Island is fairly low and flat, and most of its area lies in an altitude of no more than 15 - 20 meters above sea level.  The highest peak on the island rises to a height of only 164 meters (Bukit Timah, at the center of the island).

 

Geologically wise, Singapore consists of various rock formations: Igneous rocks (mostly Granite) can be found around the island's central parts, Bukit Timah, Woodlands and on Pulau Ubin island.  Dark, Basalt-like Gabbro rocks are found in an area called "Little Guilin" (in Bukit Gombak, not far from the centre of the island).  This area got its name for its resemblance to Guilin in Southern China.

 

Sedimentary rocks are found on the western part of Singapore and are mainly made of sandstone and mudstones.  Metamorphic rocks are found in Singapore island's northeastern part and also on Pulau Tekong, off the east coast of Singapore. The rocks are mainly made up of quartzite and also make up the Sajahat Formation.

 

Singapore doesn't have any natural rivers or freshwater lakes. There are a few small creeks that drain the Island's central plateau, but due to the rapid urbanization which the country underwent in the last few decades, those creeks were diverted into concrete canals and are no longer running along their natural channels.  The Singapore River, where the city's historic port was located, is actually one of those creeks. It connects to a relatively wide estuary that enables comfortable moorage, and that is why it was chosen by Raffle's expedition.

 

Singapore built a few manmade reservoirs and, thanks to the relatively high rainfall, it manages to cater for some of its water needs.  Nonetheless, these reservoirs are still far from supplying the city's demand and Singapore needs to import water from its neighbor, Malaysia, and to obtain some of its water from recycled water facilities and desalination plants.

 

A small insight from 'Metropolasia-Man':

Although Singapore manages to cater for some of its water needs, through manmade reservoirs, water recycling facilities and desalination plants, it is forced to import most of its water from neighbouring Malaysia.

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Singapore feography, geography of Singapore: Here you can see the island of Pulau Ubin

 

Pulau Ubin Island

 

Singapore neighbors are Malaysia to the north and Indonesia to the south.

The Straits of Johor separate Singapore from Malaysia. The relatively narrow straits are crossed by two road connections that link Singapore and Malaysia:

The Johor-Singapore Causeway and The Malaysia-Singapore Second Link.

The larger among the two is the Johor-Singapore Causeway that spans along more than a kilometer and boasts a wide road, rail, and pedestrian link, as well as water piping into Singapore.  It carries 60,000 vehicles on a typical day

 

The fairly wide Singapore Strait separates Singapore from the islands of Indonesia, to the south.

 

Singapore's urban geography is an interesting story on its own.  Until its independence (1965) the city occupied only a small area on the island's south coast, particularly around the Singapore River Estuary.  However, from the 1960s onwards, the government started to expedite the city's urban development and today, there is hardly any part of the island that is not urbanized.

 

The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) is the government agency responsible for the urban planning of Singapore, which seeks to implement efficient land use, minimize pollution while maintaining convenient transport, which are Singapore's largest concerns because of its situation as a city-state.

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